Too much stress in the office can harm your health

Too much stress in the office can harm your health

Reading time: 3 minutes

On the other hand, there is negative stress. This occurs when people expect too much or get transferred for financial reasons a huge amount of tasks. If, then, the necessary motivation to persevere and complete the tasks, or employees are unable to cope with the challenges, it can lead to pathological physical changes or mental stress. These people do not enjoy going to work anymore, are unbalanced or suffer from falling asleep.

Stress in KiTa, school and university

Over-zealous parents like to send their offspring to facilities where they start learning English, Spanish, Chinese or Arabic as a foreign language as early as four years old. In some high schools, after switching to G8, the pressure is so great that students struggle with headaches and digestive problems. Many become depressed, take performance-enhancing medications, or are in psychiatric treatment. At the Bundeswehr University in Munich, the suicide rate of aspiring professional soldiers is enormous. The young men and women just can not cope with all the stress, pressure and permanent performance optimization.

Prevent stress in the workplace

With some simple means, small and large people working in a concentrated manner succeed in resting occasionally and finding relaxation. Although at first glance it may seem as though working on assignments is dragged out by putting in small breaks, many stressed-out people end up realizing that when I'm rested and recovered, I can do much more as if I am stressed inside and under great pressure from the outside.

In addition to relaxation exercises and small athletic deposits, which loosen up the work routine, should be paid to a sufficient and healthy diet. The brain consumes a lot of sugar for eight hours. If the energy storage is empty, the energy is drawn from the fat cells of the body. As a result, the circuit switches to a starvation state. The brain and organs then receive only little energy until nutrients in the form of proteins, vitamins and minerals are fed through the diet.

Rest the eyes, relax the neck

Work a lot on the PC, this little exercise helps you against tired eyes: rub your palms together for a few seconds and put your warm hands on your closed eyes. Breathe in and out several times. If you want, you can think about things like "I'm calm and relaxed," "I'm still recovering," or "I'll take a moment to rest." Find your own phrases that will motivate you and push aside all thoughts such as "this must be done soon," or "I have a coffee stain on my blouse" aside during your relaxing 5-minute break.

Those who work a lot at the table, such as children at school and adults in the office, often sit in the wrong place and do not move the shoulder-neck game enough. An ergonomic desk can remedy the situation permanently and also makes it possible to work while standing. A well-known author has even put a stepper in front of her desk. She explains that the additional exercise is good for her, that she no longer has any tired legs and writer's block issues are less frequent.

But you can also easily relax your neck area: Close your eyes, this will help you to concentrate fully on the exercise and to hide your workplace for a moment. Slowly turn your head a few times in one direction, then in the other direction. Then you circle with your shoulders. Either together or alternately. First forward, then backwards, or the other way around.

Build up small buffers and time-outs in your daily work routine

Try to put a little breather in your daily work routine yourself. If necessary, stay ten minutes longer every day if your boss disapproves of the extra breaks, or come to work ten minutes earlier in the morning. Do you need tips for your own relaxation exercises? is a health database that provides you with solid insights into the current state of medical research. Here you can search specifically for individual solutions for your stressful professional life. We wish you stress-free work!

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Breast augmentation: Which procedure is best for you?

Breast augmentation: Which procedure is best for you?

Reading time: 3 minutes

How can breast augmentation be achieved?

Breast augmentation (mamma augmentation) can be achieved by various surgical procedures. Whichever procedure is best for you, the surgeon performing the surgery must first find out with you. It depends on how your initial situation is, what your breast tissue is like, whether you have a lot or a small amount of fatty tissue under your skin, and therefore whether you only have a very thin skin layer.

Three methods have been established:

  • Submuscular Implantation: The implant is placed under the pectoral muscle
  • Subfascial implantation: The implant is inserted between the pectoral muscle and the fascia (covering the pectoral muscle)
  • Subglandular implantation: The implant is inserted under the mammary gland tissue

There are reasons for these different implantations that speak for or against it. Depending on what anatomical requirements of the patient are and also their wishes, how the breast should look after the magnification. Which position of the implant would be best for you personally, you can find out in a consultation with your doctor.

Breast augmentation with implants always requires a cut to bring the implant to the right place. Here are three possible locations for editing:

  • Infrared Access: The incision is placed in the underbone fold.
  • Transareolar approach: The incision is placed around or through the areola.
  • Transaxillary access: The incision is placed in the armpit.

Which interface is the perfect one for you, you have to find out again with your doctor. For some reasons, some doctors only perform the incision in the lower breast crease. The advantage here is that the sensitive mammary tissue can not be easily injured. Especially with implants that are to be used under the pectoral muscle or between the breast muscle and fascia, this procedure is recommended.

When cutting in the armpit, the doctor first leads an endoscopic camera to the breast tissue and can thus see exactly on the monitor where the pocket for the implant must be opened exactly. It is therefore, if the doctor mastered the process very well, a more accurate positioning of the implant possible. On the other hand, there is also a greater risk of wound infections and injuries to nerves, blood or lymph vessels, as the doctor with all equipment and the implant must pass through all these tissue layers in the armpit.

When cutting around or through the areola, there is a risk that the mammary gland tissue is injured, as the doctor must bring the implant under this layer of tissue. On the other hand, the scar may be less visible later.

Which filling materials are there?

The implants may also contain different fillings. There are implants with silicone gel filling and filled with saline. The silicone gel fillings later give a more natural breastfeel. However, saline-filled implants have the advantage that the empty implant sheath can be inserted through a much smaller surgical incision and then filled with saline solution. This is advantageous, for example, when one breast is much smaller than the other and an approximation in shape and size is to be achieved through breast augmentation.

Apart from these implant forms, there are also two other methods:

  • Breast augmentation with autologous fat
  • Breast augmentation with hyaluronic acid

In the autologous fat method, we sucked the woman's body fat (hip, abdomen or buttocks) at a different body location (usually under general anesthesia). This is collected in a sterile container, specially prepared so that the autologous fat can settle later in the breast and then injected with thin syringes into the fatty tissue of the breasts again. Here then the injected autologous fat must grow together with the already existing fatty tissue. Once this is done, the breast augmentation is permanent, because once firmly established fat tissue is not broken down by the body.

When breast augmentation with hyaluronic acid instead of the autologous fat hyaluronic acid, a gel-like, aufpolsterde liquid injected into the breast tissue. The procedure is quite similar to autografting, but over time the body gradually breaks down hyaluron, so after a few years it may be necessary to repeat the procedure to maintain breast augmentation.

The advantage of the autologous fat and Hyaluronunterspritzung is that these methods leave hardly visible scars, as the injection sites of the syringes later no longer or hardly visible.

After all, every possibility depends on your individual case. What you want, what anatomical conditions you bring with you and also your life planning play a role. Finally, which operation method the doctor prefers or considers to be advantageous.

In a good consultation, you will receive all information about breast augmentation. It is also important that the doctor educate you about what should be done prior to such an operation (for example, do not smoke 14 days beforehand, do not drink alcohol, do not take painkillers, or take sleeping pills), all of which is necessary for pre-examination and surgical preparation to minimize risks and complications. Equally important is information about what to look out for after surgery (how long will you be unable to work, when to get pregnant at the earliest, when to do sports again, and much more) and finally, your doctor needs to educate you about the risks of this surgery That means, what can happen in the worst case and what will happen to you then or what would be needed to solve the problem.

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Dental Implants: You Need to Know

Dental Implants: You Need to Know

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What are dental implants?

Dental implants are artificial tooth roots that are anchored in the jawbone.

They consist of three parts:

  • The implant body anchored in the jawbone (looks like a "dowel" or a "screw"),
  • the neck part (also called abutment or connector)
  • and the crown (tooth).

In the case of a dental implant, therefore, the actual implant (screw) is screwed into the jawbone and is intended to grow together firmly there with the jawbone. On this screw then comes the connector around which the gums should nestle. Finally, the tooth crown is placed on the connector. When everything is done, the dental implant is firmly in the mouth and looks like a real tooth. He can be fully charged. So you can chew hard nuts, eat steak, powerfully bite into a crisp apple. There's nothing bobbing and bothering. That is why dental implants are becoming increasingly popular when it comes to dentures. They look and feel like real teeth.

Which materials are used for the dental implants?

The dental implants consist of three parts made of different materials. The actual implant (the screw) and the connector usually consist of pure titanium. This is very well accepted by the body, there are no allergies or intolerances, the jawbone can grow together very well with the implant.

Titanium alloys or zirconium oxide ceramics are also possible. From pure ceramics, which were used earlier, the medical technology has strayed again, because pure ceramic implants were not as strong and durable. Zirconia ceramics are technically not a metal, but have equally stable and durable properties as metal. They are therefore good for people who do not want to have metal in their mouth.

The crown, ie the visible tooth part, is mostly made of ceramics. Thus, the dental implant can best be simulated visually and aesthetically a natural tooth.

What are the requirements for getting dental implants?

There are some requirements that must be met for you to get a dental implant. These include, for example:

  • the bone growth must already be completed (from about 18 years)
  • a sufficient jawbone offer is necessary (otherwise the implant can not hold)
  • Careful and consistent oral hygiene is crucial, both before implant placement and after

Furthermore, there are unfortunately also some exclusion criteria, in the presence of a dental implant is not feasible. For example:

  • There are serious illnesses such as heart disease, bleeding tendency, bone and metabolic diseases
  • Permanent use of certain medications such as immunosuppressants, cortisone, cytostatics and others (please discuss with the dentist!)
  • If there are pathological conditions in the oral cavity that affect the mucous membranes or the jawbone, the successful treatment and cure must be awaited first
  • Smokers who smoke more than 10 cigarettes a day can not get implants because smoking does not allow the implants to heal properly and thus does not hold

Your dentist will carefully check whether all requirements are met and no exclusion criteria are met and then advise you accordingly, if a dental implantation is suitable for you.

How does a dental implantation work?

There are several procedures for a dental implant. It depends on where the implant is to be placed, how the bone substance is, whether it is a single-tooth implant or whether larger areas, ie several adjacent teeth, must be replaced. Depending on what you do, your dentist will choose the best option for you and advise you on it.

Basically, a tooth implantation takes place in four steps:

  • First, the dentist with a small incision opens the mucosa over the jawbone.
  • Then he drills a channel (a hole) into the jawbone with a thin special drill.
  • Thereafter, the implant body (the screw) is screwed into the drilled channel and either left open or the gums are sutured over so that the implant can heal without stress.
  • It can take several weeks to months for the implant to become firmly attached to the jawbone and healed. The dentist will monitor this process regularly and eventually adjust and insert the connector and crown. Then the dental implant is also fully loaded and ready.

It is important for the permanent preservation of the dental implant, a thorough cleaning and oral hygiene. Your dentist will show you what is important and what you should do every day to enjoy your dental implant for a lifetime.

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Diet in iron deficiency –

Diet in iron deficiency

Reading time: 3 minutes

Why do we need iron?

Iron is a trace element that our body can not produce itself and therefore has to absorb it with food. We need iron in our body for the following processes:

  • Oxygen transport in the blood
  • Oxygen storage in the muscles
  • Strengthening the immune system and thus warding off infections
  • Supply all body cells with energy
  • Assistance with hormone production and the production of enzymes

So without iron, we could not survive because the oxygen we breathe could not be distributed in the body and many other vital survival processes of our body could not take place.

If you feel tired, exhausted, impotent and powerless all the time, if you often have headaches and infections and often have sore mouth corners, it may indicate that you lack iron. Your doctor can easily tell you through a blood test if you have iron deficiency. If the iron deficiency is not so serious, then the right diet for iron deficiency can help you first.

How much iron should we eat daily with food?

Depending on what stage of life you are in, your iron needs may be higher or lower. The following guideline values ​​apply:

  • 10 mg iron for healthy, adult men (19-50 years)
  • 15 mg iron for healthy, adult women (15-50 years)
  • 30 mg iron for pregnant women
  • 20 mg iron for lactating women
  • 10 mg iron for women and men over 51 years

Which foods contain a lot of iron?

To optimize your iron deficiency diet, you need to know which foods contain a lot of iron. Here it depends above all on the well bio-available iron in the food. For example, meat and fish contain the so-called "heme iron" (Fe2+). The body can absorb and utilize this directly from the diet. Iron found in plant foods is called "non-heme iron" (Fe 3+). The body first has to digest this by digesting it in Fe2+ convert it before it can absorb and recycle it.

It is therefore more difficult for the body to absorb iron from plant food than from animal iron sources. In addition, not all the iron contained in the diet is absorbed, but in animal iron sources about 15-35% and in vegetable iron sources only 5-12%. Nevertheless, it is possible for both meat eaters and vegetarians to take the daily iron requirement from their diet if the diet is right.

The following foods are rich in iron:

  • Black pudding, liver
  • Red meat (for example from beef or venison)
  • fish and seafood
  • egg yolk
  • tofu
  • Pulses (for example soybeans, lentils, beans, peas, chickpeas)
  • Wholemeal cereals (rolled oats, spelled, greens, wheat bran)
  • quinoa
  • Nuts (pumpkin seeds, pine nuts, almonds, hazelnuts)
  • Dried fruit (raisins, prunes, apricots, figs)
  • Green vegetables (Swiss chard, lamb's lettuce, spinach, peas)
  • Fruit (strawberries, kiwis)
  • chanterelles

Which foods improve iron absorption?

There are foods that facilitate iron absorption through their ingredients. These include foods that contain a lot of vitamin C. These include fruits and vegetables and their juices such as orange juice, lemon juice, carrot juice, broccoli, red pepper, cress and parsley. For example, a glass of orange juice for morning whole-grain cereal greatly improves the absorption of iron from the cereal flakes. Fresh cress on the slice spelled bread with ham also ensures a higher iron intake. So it does not have to be much, just a small push is enough for the body.

Which foods inhibit iron absorption?

On the other hand, there are also foods that complicate or even reduce the absorption of iron. These include, for example, coffee, black and green tea, milk and dairy products, white flour products, red wine and grape juice. In the case of an iron deficiency, these foods and stimulants should therefore initially be avoided or at least not be consumed together with iron-containing foods. A distance of 60 minutes before and after eating iron-containing foods is recommended so as not to reduce iron absorption.

What are good meal combinations for optimal iron intake?

It is not difficult! You can eat delicious and eat enough iron and you do not have to do without anything, because now you know what to look for.

Here are some suggestions for iron deficiency diets:

  • Muesli made from oatmeal and millet flakes, stirred with boiling water and garnished with fresh oranges, blackberries, raspberries and pistachios
  • Red lentil soup with dried apricots, orange juice and caramelized pumpkin seeds
  • Beef fillet on lamb's lettuce with quinoa side dish and red peppers, topped with sliced ​​almonds
  • Omelette with chanterelles and red pepper, garnished with a little parsley or cress

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Freezing in tiredness: Causes and remedies for the feeling of cold before and during sleep

Freezing in tiredness: Causes and remedies for the feeling of cold before and during sleep

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The more tired, the colder?

Just chilly warm and cuddly but with the first yawning comes the chill – Freezing in fatigue is usually quite normal and due to a body mechanism. Because the body lacks sleep, it comes to two "problems". On the one hand, regulatory mechanisms in the brain are unbalanced and disturbed. The body heat is thereby no longer properly regulated or perceived differently. This can also lead to variable sensations of heat and cold, although the ambient temperature does not change.

Another mechanism for lack of sleep and stress refers to the circulation and metabolism. Exhaustion causes the secretion of hormones, which in turn causes the blood vessels to contract and shut down. The blood circulation gets worse and the body concentrates its power to keep the body trunk warm. On the other hand, the limbs that are further removed from the body trunk become colder and freeze. That's why the hands and feet are the quickest to cool or at least feel that way, even when they're dressed warm and there's no change in the ambient temperature.

Although freezing when tired can be quite normal, there are other and sometimes worrying causes for the feeling of cold.

Freezing while sleeping

Freezing in tiredness is a normal reaction of the body. However, if you are free from falling asleep or undisturbed, you should investigate more closely. Because there may be other causes for it, as pure tiredness. These include:

  • an underactive thyroid
  • persistent lack of sleep and / or stress
  • disease-related circulatory disorders, such as diabetes
  • too low blood pressure
  • infections
  • underweight
  • general weakness
  • too low temperature in the bedroom
  • wrong mattress and comforter

If one of these problems occurs, a vicious circle can arise. Freezing prevents sleep, which makes fatigue and fatigue increasingly worse, which in turn leads to more freezing and thus keeps you from sleeping.

(Warming) countermeasures

The first step in abruptly freezing while asleep should be a doctor's visit to rule out or recognize health problems and treat them accordingly. However, it is worth taking a look at the temperature, humidity and the bed. A matching duvet or mattress can be of central importance.

But what if even the right mattress, duvet and bed linen do not help? If temperature and humidity are already within the optimal range and there are no health problems, the sleep routine and other factors should be scrutinized.

These include:

-Stress: sustained, negative stress releases hormones that effectively put the body in a state of emergency, maintain it, and increase fatigue, fatigue and fatigue. A suitable countermeasure are sufficient breaks but above all the learning of relaxation techniques, such as breathing meditation, autogenic training, meditation, yoga or progressive muscle relaxation. Especially the learning of the breathing meditation takes as well as the execution only little time and therefore fits well in stressful phases.

Sleep Deficiency: Continued lack of sleep can alter the body as well as stress, and regulatory mechanisms can be significantly disrupted. A corresponding sleep routine can remedy this situation. Take a warm bath, listen to soothing music, try to go to bed at the same time every day – create a ritual that you daily follow and thus connect to sleep. Good are soothing and circulation-promoting measures, such as (self-) massages, creams or relaxation techniques such. Herbal pillows. It is also helpful to repeat the ritual in the evening at the same time. As a result, the body and psyche are conditioned to come to rest at this time. In contrast, exciting and stimulating activities, such as exciting books, loud music, screen light through TV, mobile phone or work on other monitors are unfavorable.

– missing physical workload: Anyone who sits all day can be under immense stress and yet can not find a suitable physical workload. Although the head is busy or perhaps even overloaded and thus stressed, the body has by far not obtained sufficient claim. On the one hand, this can disturb sleep, on the other hand, it can worsen the circulation and thus promote a feeling of freezing. Regular exercise in the form of walks or sports, on the other hand, can have a positive influence on the blood circulation and supply and thus act against the freezing. Muscle development is also beneficial, because muscle mass has a warming effect. In addition, regular physical work often improves the overall quality of sleep. Ideal are sports units that are not too short before going to bed. At least two to three hours should be between exercise and sleep.

As soon as you have health problems clarified, the sleeping conditions are checked and, if necessary, beneficial measures for a healthy lifestyle are taken, you will soon be able to sleep peacefully and comfortably warmed up.

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Prevent a cold: How to get through the cold

Prevent a cold: How to get through the cold

Reading time: 2 minutes

Whether in the office or in the tram: In winter, it coughs and sneezes again from all corners. The viruses are really lurking everywhere. Unfortunately, such a quarantine suit in everyday life is rather impractical. Fortunately, there are other ways to prevent a cold. With our tips you can survive the next cold wave as healthy as possible.

Tip 1: Keep mucous membranes moist

Why do we catch cold so often, especially in winter? This is not necessarily due to the cold, but primarily due to the warm heating air that dries out our mucous membranes. As a result, they no longer perform as well as their defense function and cold viruses have an easy game. They settle in the upper respiratory tract and cause the typical cold symptoms there: cough, runny nose and hoarseness.

To prevent a cold, the mucous membranes should therefore always be well moistened. Therefore, it is important to open the windows completely for about a few minutes, approximately once per hour, or to take a short walk during the lunch break. Equally important, however, is to drink enough. Recommended are about 1.5 liters per day. Incidentally, this also applies if you have caught a cold. In addition to water, warm tea is also a good help with slimy cough. As a result, viscous mucus liquefied and the coughing be relieved.

Tip 2: Strengthen the immune system with sauna sessions

The Finns swear by their "sweating rooms" – and in fact regular sauna sessions can help to strengthen the immune system. Sweating puts the body in a kind of "artificial fever", which – similar to real fever – activates the immune cells important for the defense against infection. After sweating, an abrupt cooling follows in an ice basin or bath. The change in temperature stimulates the blood circulation and the cardiovascular system is trained.

However, those who want to prevent colds by using the sauna must actually do it like the Finns and sweat more often. After all, positive effects only come about through regular visits.

Tip 3: The cold "run away"

Anyone who does sports regularly gets colds less often than a sporty muffle. Because: who is more active, whose defense cells are too. By regular exercise you strengthen your immune system and can prevent a cold. For example, moderate jogging of about 20 minutes daily is enough. The regularity is more important than the intensity of the training. Very excessive exercise is even counterproductive and can overwhelm the immune system. Also a sufficient regeneration phase after the sport is therefore recommended.

In case of fever, sport should always be taboo. The viruses can then start to wander in the body and cause, for example, a heart muscle inflammation, which can have dangerous consequences.

Tip 4: Stay cool!

An upcoming deadline, family problems and Co. – there are many reasons for stress in everyday life. Especially those who suffer from permanent tension, but is more prone to catch a snuff nose. Because the psyche also affects our immune system.

In the colder months, therefore, treat yourself to rest breaks more often and make sure you have enough sleep. This way, you can certainly make it completely relaxed by the cold.

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Fit through the cold season: What proteins can contribute to a healthy diet

Fit through the cold season: What proteins can contribute to a healthy diet

Reading time: 2 minutes

What are proteins and how many different types are there?

To understand why proteins are so important to the body, the first step is to find out what proteins actually are and where they actually occur. First, there are the so-called animal proteins, which mainly include whey protein lactose (milk sugar), casein and milk and egg protein (also known as egg albumin). On the other hand, there are various vegetable protein suppliers, such as peas, soy, hemp and rice. The amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine contained therein can not be produced by our body independently, which makes a balanced diet so important. Put simply, these proteins are protein molecules that consist mainly of peptide compounds and amino acids.

What is the purpose of proteins in the human organism?

We have already established that proteins provide our body with the essential amino acids – but what exactly are they responsible for? On the one hand, proteins are needed for the development of muscle tissue and for various organ functions. On the other hand, they are also responsible for the growth of bones, hair and skin. And also the immune system is based on the different protein components, without which the transport of fat and oxygen would not work in sufficient form. Accordingly, the supply of proteins can be considered as vital, since an unbalanced protein balance in the worst case can lead to significant physical problems.

What amount of proteins should humans eat?

Ideally, adults who want to eat healthy and balanced should eat around one gram of protein per kilogram of body weight every day. At a normal weight of 85 kilos it would be about 85 grams of pure protein. In the case of sick or elderly people as well as competitive athletes and pregnant or lactating women, this value can easily be increased without hesitation in order to better support the body in its regeneration. The values ​​here can be 1.5 to a maximum of 2 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. Overweight people, on the other hand, should rather use their body size as a unit of measurement, that is to say, with a height of 1.80 meters and a weight of 95 kilograms, about 80 grams of protein protein would be recommended.

How do proteins help the body and what does protein deficiency mean?

Proteins support the human body in the repair or regeneration of muscle injuries as well as damage to the skin tissue. In addition, the protein compounds stimulate the entire metabolism, which accordingly benefits the body's defense respectively the immune system. Protein deficiency, according to the health experts of the technician health insurance, however, for a weakening of body defense and a reduction in mental and physical performance. In addition, adults may experience serious problems with the organs, while protein deficiencies in adolescents may even lead to underdevelopment of mental capacity in the worst case.

Which foods contain the most proteins?

There are many foods that contain high levels of protein. These include, on the one hand, animal foods, such as all dairy products (quark, cheese, milk and yoghurt), eggs or even chicken or beef and fish (especially shrimp and salmon). On the other hand, various plant foods also contain a sufficient amount of proteins. Almost all types of nuts, peas, soybeans, pumpkin seeds, oatmeal and numerous types of lettuce, spinach and broccoli are especially recommended here. Those who want to eat healthily, but want to for example refrain from meat or allergic reactions to nuts and nuts, should supplement their protein balance with supplements.

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Sincerely, avoid mistakes in business correspondence

Sincerely, avoid mistakes in business correspondence

Reading time: 1 minute

Again and again you hear that the salutation "Yours sincerely" outdated boring and the crafty letter writer on more modern farewell sentences. Alternatives to the usual greeting "Sincerely" are for example:

  • Best regards
  • Kind regards
  • Best regards

Always happy to be used also greeting formulas in business correspondence with a location. The advantage: It makes the whole letter look a little more personal and remains at the same time serious. A salutation like: "Greetings from Bonn" is quite serious and sometimes something other than "Yours sincerely".

Error with "Sincerely"

With the new German spelling is also in this salutation the question: What is it called right? Greetings or greetings? And do I have to put a comma behind the sentence or even a colon? How does it look with the singular, is also accepted "with friendly greeting"? Basically, according to Duden applies that the salutation is written with a "ß" and also corresponds to a comma according to the sentence of the German standard. Also the singular form "With friendly greeting" is generally accepted.

A short and concise "MfG" should be avoided in the business correspondence, however, just like the much ridiculed LOL. Among colleagues in e-mail form, the "MfG" may still be in order, but in official correspondence you should definitely resort to the tendered "Sincerely". In addition, the short "MfG" acts as if you are in time pressure and sometimes it pays to give a customer a little more time with his outspoken greetings.

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Will the old-age pension be reduced while at the same time receiving the accident pension?

Will the old-age pension be reduced while at the same time receiving the accident pension?

Reading time: 3 minutes

I would like to anticipate the information that the accident or BK pension, which was recognized as a long-term pension by the employers' liability insurance association, will be paid unabridged for life. A crediting to pay or unemployment benefit 1 is not.

Only the statutory pension is reduced if certain values ​​are exceeded. The regulations on the transfer of the pension of the professional association to the statutory pension are in § 93 of the 6th Social Code. Legislators wanted to prevent oversupply with these rest regulations.

A casualty or occupational disease should therefore not be better off with respect to the occupational and statutory pensions, as a worker before the accident or occupational disease. Therefore, the upper limit set at the confluence of the two pensions is the notional net earnings before the accident or occupational disease. This upper limit is called the threshold amount and is calculated as 70% of the annual earnings.

What is the annual earnings?

The annual earnings are determined by the professional association from the gross pay before the accident or occupational disease. If no remuneration has been received, for example from students, or the fee was very low, for example apprentices, statutory minimum values ​​for the annual earnings are used as a basis.

From this annual earnings the accident pension or the BK pension is calculated.
The accident pension or BK pension is equal to two-thirds of the annual earnings multiplied by the percentage of body damage found.
For example, if your annual earnings were € 30,000 and you had 50% body damage, your annual pension would be € 10,000. (€ 30,000 x 2/3 x 50% = € 10,000). This results in a monthly accident or BK pension of € 833.33.

What happens if the accident pensioner goes into retirement or receives a disability pension?

In the pension application of the statutory pension insurance, the reference to the pension of the professional association must be specified. The pension insurance registers the professional association. The BG reports the amount of the accident or BK pension, the amount of body damage in% and the annual earnings to the German pension insurance, the institution in which the statutory pension is applied for.

In the pension decision of the statutory pension insurance, the calculation of the rest is carried out in Appendix 7. Thus, the calculation is called, in which it is checked whether and to what extent the statutory pension is reduced.

The following steps are performed:

Step 1:
The pension insurance calculates the statutory gross pension, for example:
45,0000 salary points from 45 working years x current pension value 28.09 € = 1.264,05 €

step 2:
The pension insurance deducts from the accident or BK pension a deduction, which may not be counted.
This allowance corresponds to the basic pension that would be paid for the same bodily harm according to the Federal Care Act (BVG), for example for victims of violence.

With a body damage of 50%, the basic pension and thus the allowance in 2012 would amount to € 233 per month. To stay with our example, the following calculation would be performed: 833.33 € -233,00 € = 600,33 €.

step 3:
The statutory pension is added to the allowable part of the accident or pension, for example:
€ 1,264.05 + € 600.33 = € 1864.38.

Step 4:
In this step, the limit amount is calculated. This amounts to 1/12 of 70% of the annual earnings, for example:
The annual earnings of € 30,000.00 will be charged at 70%. This is € 21,000.00, divided by 12. This results in a monthly limit of € 1,750.00.

Step 5:
In this step, the retirement amount by which the retirement pension is reduced is determined. The result from step 4 is subtracted from the result from step 3, here: € 1,864.38 – € 1,750.00 = € 114.38. The retirement pension will be cut by 114.38 € in this example. € 1,264.05 – € 114.38 = € 1,149.67.
The gross pension of the statutory pension insurance in this example after the calculation of the retirement is € 1,149.67.

Of it is still health and care insurance contribution of 10.15%
(with parental property) or 10.4% (without parental property) deducted.
The net old-age pension in this example amounts to € 1,032.68 for the deduction of 10.15% or € 1,030.10 for a deduction of 10.4%.

The professional association pays the accident or BK pension, in this example 833.33 €, in full until the end of the life on. According to this scheme from step 1 to step 5, almost everyone can calculate for themselves whether and to what extent the accident or BK pension leads to a reduction of the statutory pension.

Which exceptions are there?

  1. Self-employed persons who have paid or paid their own contribution to the employers' liability insurance association are paid none Reduction of the statutory pension if an accident or pension is paid out of an accident or occupational disease during the period of self-employment. A rest calculation must not be performed.

    Incidentally, this is another source of error in the decisions of the statutory pension insurance. In practice, I have seen examples in which the statutory pension insurance has cut even among self-employed. Therefore, I recommend to those affected individual counseling.

  2. For workers then takes place none Reduction of the statutory pension if an occupational disease or accident occurs during employment commenced after the onset of the statutory pension.
  3. For persons who receive a miners' pension in the statutory pension or have suffered certain lung diseases as an occupational disease, the allowances are calculated differently. With these groups of persons an individual consultation is indispensable.
  4. On the widow's or widower's pension, the part of the accident or BK pension that is above the free allowance (BVG basic pension) is credited as income. There is a separate article on income transfer for a survivor's pension.

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A secret trick will give you the perfect justification in Word

Business tips Microsoft Office

Reading time: 2 minutes Are you always writing left-justified documents and texts in Microsoft Word or are you using the justification for your paragraphs? If yes, then you know for sure that there is a small hurdle here that can drive you to despair. I'll show you a secret formatting trick that will give you the perfect justification in Word.

2 min reading time

A secret trick will give you the perfect justification in Word

Reading time: 2 minutes

Paragraph formatting in Microsoft Word

The formatting of paragraphs in Microsoft Word is now very common to most users. There are four formatting options for paragraph alignment:

  • Left-aligned paragraphs (that's usually the default)
  • Centered paragraphs
  • Right-aligned paragraphs
  • Paragraph formatted paragraphs

Format paragraphs in block format

In and of itself are the formatting, which are very easy to set. To format a paragraph using the Justify icon in Word means that Microsoft Word formats the individual lines of the paragraph so that the last word in a line ends exactly at the set right margin. To do this, the spacing of the words in a Microsoft Word line is increased evenly across the line.

Line break issues when formatting a paragraph in block justification

However, using text breaks in paragraphs with justification causes problems. If you have ended a line of a paragraph prematurely with the key combination SHIFT + ENTER, then the justification is still applied. As you can see in the picture below, there are usually huge gaps between the words and the last word ends at the end of the line.

A secret trick will give you the perfect justification in Word

The perfect block record with a secret keyboard trick

To get this problem under control, there is only one way. Before entering the text, use the Tab key to insert a tabulator step. Microsoft Word then formats the line as desired. The secret is the prefaced taboo. You write a tab after the last word of the line and then use the key combination SHIFT + ENTER to create the text break, which is also called a soft line break. Unfortunately, this trick is no longer secret 😉. Good luck.

A secret trick will give you the perfect justification in Word

Picture credits: Andrey Popov /

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