Fungal determination and differences to doubles


During the practical determination of the mushroom mushroom the class (lamellae mushroom) is first clarified, then typical characteristics (leaves white, later reddish etc.) and finally the significant distinguishing features to its doppelgängers worked out (eg Perlpilz rots, its doppelgänger gray amanita, Pantherpilz not, stem and leaf differences etc.). The characteristics recorded in a table clearly distinguish the three fungi from each other.

Fungal determination: Which questions have to be clarified in advance?

Question number 1: Is it tube or lamella mushrooms or leafless varieties (boviste, morels). This is important to distinguish, because only among the lamellae fungi deadly poisonous mushrooms are located. However there is exceptions (the deadly Lorchen).

Question number 2: What color are the slats or tubes? This is important, because only the deadly poisonous tuberous mushrooms pure white slats have, the deadly poisonous roughnecks cinnamon-brown and the deadly venomous bleachers (eg softwood puffball) tan,

Question number 3: Which taste and odor the mushrooms have – but the taste only "lick". This is enough to determine very sharp or bitter mushrooms that should never be collected. So z. B. the bile earring are distinguished from the real cesarean. Smells the mushroom z. B. to carbolic, it is the poisonous carbolic mushroom.

Question number 4: What other fungal characteristics are to be found, eg. B. beringt, grooved, mushroom cap. tuber,

Practical mushroom determination using the example of the pearl mushroom

1, The pearl mushroom Amanita rubescens is an exquisite edible mushroom, but it is very close to the group of toadstools and should be collected only with certain knowledge.

a) The typical feature of the pearl mushroom is the pale reddish color that appears when touched, injured, incised or the epidermis is peeled off. Even grubby, especially on the tuber, causes this reddish discoloration very strong. The redness can also become clear only during prolonged lying (storage), which can be misleading. Initially, the entire mushroom encloses a protective cover, which later tears and leaves remnants (pustules, flakes, warts) on the hat, which are easily wiped off. On the stem a cuff remains (partial shell). The mushroom has two major doppelgangers, with which it could be confused.

Second Double predecessor: Gray or Squat Amanita, (Gray Mushroom) Armanita exelsa, He has a characteristic typical of the perl mushroom Not: he does not turn red (when touched, storage). But he has one grooved cuff, He too is edible, but too easily confused with the following toadstool.

Third doppelganger Pantherpilz Amanita pantherina. He is a dangerous toadstool. Nevertheless, all three belong to the same family of amanita (such as fly agaric, panther mushroom, green, white, yellow tuber-leaf fungus, the scabbard and perl mushroom). The Pantherpilz does not have a typical characteristic of the Perlpilzes, which serves for the determination as significant characteristic: it has no grooved stalk,

And his stalk has one special rolled-up "childrens skirt" -sholl. You could already distinguish all three mushrooms from each other. They can only be proven exactly by the mycological determination. You put u.a. notes that only the poisonous panther fungus not bruised in iodine solution.

Fungal determination table (characteristics determined by magnifying glass):

Mushroom (Amanita rubescens) Gray amanita, Armanita exelsa Pantherpilz Amanita pantherina
quality Edible, not raw Edible, not raw not eatable
good mushroom mushroom toadstool
cap gray, reddish, reddish brown, greyish-brown, ash-gray, liver brownish to yellow
less gray white black-gray, up to 12 cm hemispherical, later flat,
pustules grayish-roan first whitish, then gray white, disappear easily
hat brim ungerieft smooth, ungrudged hat border Edge gerieft
epidermis Upper skin fibrous, cracked Hat epidermis easily removable
leaves white, then spotted reddish, white, fuzzy on the vagina white, dense
tight, soft bulbous wide, soft soft
free (not grown up) attached to the stalk attached to the stalk
stalk slender or strong stocky Slim, last hollow inside
white, then reddish white, soon gray, especially over cuff, white, never reddening, delicately fuzzy
brownish red on the ground 5-10 cm high, 1-2 cm thick
mush , hanging down on the stem above the cuff gerieft white above, below gray, screeched cuff ungerieft, white, sticking out in middle of stalk, then beaten down, lying down
tuber strong, conical, gradually merging into steep, up to 4cm thick, (also missing) onion-shaped thickened, no vagina, gray warts sharpened without hull cap, stalk grafted in (rolled-up "Kindersöckchen", belt zones
meat white, delicate, on average dyeing, bläsrötlich-brown reddish white, in the vertex under the epidermis Gray never red, always white, also under the hat surface,
taste palatable mild, but soon scratching sweetish – bland
odor fragrant dull, turnip to radish-like radish, raw potatoes
spore colorless, dust white, ellipsoid, blue in iodine solution (amyloid) short egg-shaped, blue in iodine solution (amyloid) colorless, ellipsoid, dust white, blue Not in iodine solution
Time : from June to October from the end of May – oct. from June to October
Vorkomm , Foliage and coniferous forest Foliage and coniferous forest Foliage and coniferous forest
hazards raw poisonous, mass mushroom, only for mushroom connoisseurs, confusion with.Pantherpilz raw poisonous, mass mushroom, only for mushroom connoisseurs, confusion with.Pantherpilz very toxic (Ibotensäure, Muszimol), acts on nervous system, causes numerous intoxications, short latency allows fast medicine. Help – therefore chance of healing is good

The taxonomy of this fungal family (amanita) was as follows :

Class: basidia or stem fungi, Basidiopmycétes Forming their spores on the outside of club-shaped cells (the basidia). The basidia form a coherent layer, the hymenium

Subclass: cap mushrooms, Hymenomycétidae , The Hymenium covers outer surfaces of the fruit body, usually the "food" (leaves, tubes, spines) under the hat, or it covers the entire fruit body (coral fungi).

Alright: agarics, agaricales , Mushrooms with mostly juicy, fibrous flesh, hat lower side with leaves (= lamellae mixed with shorter leaves, but almost never forked.

Family: Amanita . Amanitaceae , Stem mostly ringed, leaves attached to stalk, spore dust white. Stalk base often bulbous and with membranous or warty Velumresten often in one Sheath – Volva. Individually on forest floor.

Genus Knollenblätterpilze & Wulstlinge Amanita (Types of family: blusher, Panther mushroom, Green, White, Yellow tuber leaf mushroom, Red & brown fly agaric, Gray amanita

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Salary talk: 3 things that supervisors do not want to hear!


You are asked for a spontaneous salary talk? This is your great opportunity to point out your skills and get more salary. But beware: Some things never want to hear supervisors and HR. Just make sure in the next salary talks that you do not bring into play the 3 things HR and supervisors do not want to hear.

Never pity on a salary conversation!

  • "A salary increase would be so important to me! I have two children and I have to support my ex-wife … "
  • "You yourself know how much the rents in our city have risen. With a salary increase, I could keep my apartment close to the company and not have to move to the country … "
  • "The cost of living is rising every year …"

Attention! Anyone who uses pity in a salary conversation will quickly influence a decision: that of the decision makers that there is no more money. Pity belongs in no salary negotiation. Only your value for the company plays a role and provides a decision-making basis for the supervisor or the HR manager.

Blackmail will never fulfill your purpose!

  • "Well, let me put it this way: I could do very well without the company. But everyone here knows how the company would be without me. Because my performance is unassailable! "

Yes, even if you have pointed to your performance and your value for the company: blackmail and under pressure set guaranteed and backfired legitimately. Keep in mind: no one is irreplaceable. That is what the decision-makers in the companies know. If you work well and valuable for your company, you do not need this tactic at all. If you take the path, you have to expect the employer to break up in the worst case scenario.

Signaled lack of preparation and disinterest: you do not know about your value!

  • "Well, if you raise my salary by 20 percent, I will not be out of the ordinary!"
  • "Do you actually know how my performance is rewarded monthly by the competition?"

Statements such as these can only be accepted by a salaried employee who really has a realistic overview of the market. Therefore, before each salary talk, make sure you have an overview of the industry-standard wages. Those who play poker too high and bring dubious sums into play do not believe their superiors. The various career and job portals on the Internet provide you with a mostly very good overview.

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Simple carnival costumes that encourage flirting


Carnival, Carnival or Fasnet. Never again in the year is it so easy to make intimate contacts quickly. On the safe side, you are when you send sociable signals. This is easy by refining your costume with small details.

Carnival, Carnival and Fasnet: The foolish time means differently in every German region. But everywhere is the same: flirting is especially fun. But how do you signal with a wink that you are in a flirty mood, without elaborate costume? Spice up your outfit with funny details and be curious what happens.

That's how you signal flirting readiness

  • Hands – touch desired: Handprints on back, arms and buttocks. Painted with fabric color or glued on felt. Attention: Be aware that this presentation invites you to touch it.
  • Baker-guy – the girls like to bite: White T-shirt, white trousers, cook or baker's hat on the head and around the neck a chain of small salt pretzels. Simply thread the crunchy pretzels on a string, wrapping each pretzel once to defy gravity until it is nibbled.
  • Sweet Girl – otherwise sweet: Stitch classic sweets on a shell or dress. To do this, sew the triangular sweets with simple loops. To protect your garment, hold a piece of fabric or felt against the candy from behind and sew it tightly. During the evening, the sweets on your outfit will be less, the contacts will increase.
  • A quick quote – a kiss as a reward: Write a provocative spell on your T-shirt. How about these two, based on the fairy tale Frog Prince and Sleeping Beauty: "Do not kiss. Otherwise I will become a frog again"with that, you are out to be a REAL prince. Or the Sleeping Beauty mesh: "I'm not sleeping, you can still kiss me."

More interesting articles around the foolish time:

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Body language: The knowledge of the FBI expert


Body language reveals a lot about interviewing. Joe Navarro, a former FBI agent, reveals his knowledge in a book.

For 25 years, Joe Navarro exposed criminals in the FBI's Counterintelligence Department. With the help of body language. Now he has written a book, "Reading People – An FBI agent explains how we can decode body language". Learn more about FBI body language expertise.

Understand Body Language: Crossed Legs

Joe Navarro knows that people cross their legs when they feel comfortable. If a person comes in a conversation with this and the legs go apart, reveals the body language that has set malaise.

The thumb: What the body language in the meeting reveals

If the thumbs are hidden behind clasped hands, that is a sign of insecurity, according to Joe Navarro. Thumbs up: This body language speaks good thoughts, according to the FBI specialist.

Tricks that betray nervous people

Touching the Throttle Pit (located between the larynx and the sternum): This will allow Navarro to fight worry, insecurity and anxiety. Experts in body language quickly discover this method and know about the condition of the conversation partners. Playing with the necklace is classified as such a trick by women by the conversation specialist as well. Men touch their own neck in such situations.

Body language expresses affection!

Joe Navarro reveals the following finding: Who in a conversation, which is conducted in a sitting opposite, rejects his interlocutor, leaning towards him, expressing confidence and well-being through his body language. The opposite is obvious: people who sit back in such a situation express their defense with their body language. Whoever crosses his legs and holds his knee in such a way that it forms a barrier to the interlocutor expresses rejection and distance with his body language.

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The 10 worst phrases in the interview!


Whether you are looking for a job interview or a letter of application: If you want to impress a human being, you should avoid the 10 worst phrases. A study has now unmasked her.

In job interviews or job applications, job seekers use certain words over and over again to differentiate themselves from the mass of competitors. Some phrases have gained the upper hand and personnel can no longer hear them. The application then goes directly to the files. Whenever possible, avoid these terms in the interview and application letter.

Job interview: You should avoid these top 10 most common phrases

space set phrase
1. Innovative
Second Dynamic
Third Motivated
4th Wide experiences
5th Proactive
6th team Player
7th track record
8th. added value
9th Delivering Results
10th problem solver

Katie Ledger from LinkedIn reveals how to avoid phrases in the interview

Ledger: "My advice: If you use one or more of the ten terms in your profile, delete them. Instead, note that you have eight to ten years of experience or that you could increase sales by 300 percent. Use meaningful content that reflects the highlights of your career. "

Making job interviews positive: That is how the study came together

The global business network LinkedIn has undertaken a study. The network has around 85 million members. These can create career profiles. The operators have filtered out the most common keywords.

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Espresso and its various preparations


You would like to try something different with your espresso machine? No problem, because the espresso is available in countless variations. We introduce you to different types of preparation.

Variations in 25 ml of water

A normal espresso is made from 7 g espresso coffee powder and 25 ml water. It can be used to create four different espresso variants.

Cool the espresso with stirring in finely crushed ice. There are small ice crystals. Stirring prevents the formation of a single large lump of ice. If you add more water and
Sprinkle sugar, get an iced coffee. The "Caffè freddo" is usually served in Italy only in summer.

If you add the same or twice the amount of hot water after boiling the espresso, you will get a consistency in consistency.

Variations with other proportions of water

If you prepare the espresso with only 15 ml of water, it is called espresso ristretto. You get a very concentrated, strong espresso. You get an espresso lungo, if you prepare the espresso with twice the amount of water, thus 50 ml.

If you prepare an espresso with twice the amount of coffee powder and water, the result is called an espresso dopio. If you use only 30 ml of water, it is called a double Ristretto, a very concentrated, double espresso.

Variations with little milk

If you add a small sip of warm milk to an espresso, you will get an espresso macchiato, a "spotted" espresso. In Italy, it is quite common to add some froth to an espresso to refine the flavor. An espresso macchiato freddo, on the other hand, is refined with a small sip of cold fresh milk.

Variations with a lot of milk

You can make cappuccino from an espresso to which you add foamed milk. The foam forms a hood on the coffee.

Latte macchiato, "spotted milk", is in Italy a drink for children, a warm milk with stirred espresso. In Germany, a latte macchiato is a layered milk coffee: the lowest layer is hot milk, which occupies about two-thirds of the glass. The remaining third is taken by milk foam. The espresso is then carefully poured over the back of the spoon through the milk foam. He floats on the milk because it has a higher density than the hot espresso.

The milk froth will be particularly creamy if you use milk with a high fat content. He succeeds best with a milk fat content of over 3.5 percent.

Variations with chocolate and cocoa

A marocchino is prepared with a teaspoon of chocolate, espresso, milk foam and pure cocoa powder. You spread the melted chocolate with a twisting motion on the inside of the cup and then pour in the espresso.

Then add two to three teaspoons of milk foam and dust this hood with plenty of cocoa powder. Bicerin prepare by mixing the same amount of espresso and hot chocolate. Add up a dome with not too whipped cream.

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Appraisal interview: This is how you express your criticism profitably


Criticism as well as praise and target agreements are part of an appraisal interview. However, criticism can only be profitably applied if you express it appropriately. The following tips will lead you to a successful review.

In the appraisal interview criticism is a good thing!

Always keep in mind that criticism is an elementary part of an employee appraisal. Sure, it would sometimes be easier to hide the criticism part in the staff conversation. Nobody hurts, everything seems peaceful. Of course, that's not possible in reality.

In the appraisal interview always express criticism!

Honesty is the best policy. Make sure that you always express criticism openly and honestly. For example: "You are obviously leaning too loosely against our customers. I have learned through several direct feedback. That's not good for our business. "

In the discussion, put common interests in the foreground!

By pointing to common interests in an appraisal interview, you make it clear to your interviewee that you are not personally attacking him: "You see, some of my clients also find it difficult to control me. I do not want to attack you personally. But it's not about our well-being. It's about our common success here in the company. "

In the employee interview: Who distributes, must also be able to take criticism!

If you have criticized your opponent in the staff interview, you must also give him space to respond to your criticism and to justify themselves. If your conversation partner does not attach this to himself, ask him. So he realizes that you really care about his opinion.

Example: "I know that these are some of the charges against you. Of course it can also be that I am completely wrong with my feelings. How do you rate the situation? Do you have a different impression? "

Arrange common goals!

At the end of a profitable employee appraisal is to formulate goals together. Keep these in writing and then go through them in the next joint conversation.

If you have realized that situations have improved as a result of the past appraisal interview, you are convinced of the effectiveness of constructive criticism. Use this effect for more effective conversations.

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Common thread of conversation – good result


Why is it that conversations are sometimes unstructured, inconclusive and unsatisfactory? No matter if it's the discussion with coworkers and supervisors or with the partner and the children: Occasionally you go out of it and think: That was nothing.

The most common mistake in interviewing is to narrowly pursue only one's own intention. It is better to work into the world of feelings and thoughts of the other person and to develop a dialogue thread together. This often results in a better result than the original own project.

Working in the group is more productive

Work in the group almost always results in better quality results compared to a single person's performance. Because so more arguments come together, which develop a dynamic in the meeting. This, in turn, leads to a greater factual, argumentative mobility among all participants.

An example from practice

Let us construct a concrete example from the world of work. At the departmental meeting with the divisional manager, employees are compensated for the significant overtime that was incurred on successfully completing the project. But the young and new head of department wants to start as soon as possible with a lot of staff and time in the next order.

The completed project is his first, bigger success since joining the company. He wants to reload immediately to force himself on his superiors for the next career move. However, his employees are unwilling to commit themselves so strongly again until there is a regulation for the overtime incurred. If each side insists on its position, the new project fails – but both sides have nothing in common: the divisional director does not get the next success and the staff no overtime compensation.

Mutual entering into each other

However, the conditions for a good outcome of this conversation are good. The completed project was successful and ensured a good atmosphere in the team. It is important for both parties to empathize with the motives of the other side. The result is a common thread of discussion with the goal pursued by all parties involved, also to lead the next assignment to a success.

Compensation for overtime is not only possible through money, but also through free time. There is the colleague in the team who needs more time for private commitments or hobbies in the coming weeks. She leaves early or frees up on a working day a week. The other colleague needs a larger vacation block for an extensive trip. It takes place in the season, which does not stress this department so much. The divisional manager starts the new, structured project so that the currently required employees are always motivated.

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So you are guaranteed not boring speech


Many speeches, lectures and presentations are boring, hardly inspiring and reminiscent of the frontal lessons from school days. There are very simple rules for a convincing presentation. The following article explains how your speech will not be dull for your audience. Stick to the following six tips to avoid boring speech.

1. Start with a bang

Start with a bang, with an apt anecdote, an unusual joke, a (really) long break. Most listeners only remember the beginning and end of a speech. Get drastic, sharpen things a little, exaggerate a bit. Provoke, make fun of something, yourself or the audience.

2. Do not wait with the essence

A successful speech is based on the interests of the listener and gets straight to the point quickly. Therefore concentrate on the essentials. Make a key statement and then execute it briefly. Then follows the next, etc. Limit yourself to a maximum of seven. Nobody can remember anymore.

3. Do not read but hold eye contact

Let your gaze wander over your listeners from left to right (and back). It is best if you talk completely freely and keep 100% eye contact. Write down keywords only for the outline points of your lecture. If you use transparencies or similar: never read them! Your listeners can read for themselves.

4. Tell personal stories

Remove the word "man" from your vocabulary. Talk in the first person. Say "me" or (if you represent a team) "we". We humans love stories. Pack your thoughts in as many vivid stories and examples as possible. Tell us what you or your team have experienced. Not permanently and where it fits.

5. Use main sentences and active verbs

Main things formulate in main sentences. Do not use relative sets, let alone nesting sets. Important statements may be repeated, which increases the effect of the game. Use pictorial verbs in the active. Instead of "All measures were tackled with great commitment," it says in their presentation: "The team burned for success."

6. Put a final punch

As I said, the beginning and the end of a speech are especially memorable. Finally, fire off a punch line, a provocative question, an inspirational idea, a controversial thought, something people want to talk about or talk about after you speak.

I wish you success!

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How to formulate good wishes and congratulations on the birth of a child


The joy is great when a child is born and all too happy to congratulate the parents. But surely you know the feeling of empty wording when sitting in front of the empty greeting card? Here are some suggestions on how to overcome this writer's block.

Pay attention to the salutation

Even though the salutation remains unnamed in the following examples, you should not forget them. Since a birth and sent congratulations are very personal, you are welcome to use "Dear Madam or Dear Lord".

For example, with your greetings, point out the peculiarity of this event:

Again, the world has further proof that love itself is turning mathematics upside down. If one calculates in mathematics: 1 + 1 = 2 then in love: 1 + 1 = 3
In this sense, a lot of joy in your / your new life as a parent your / yours ….

Universal wisdom can also be used for the event of a birth:

Everyone who knows how to experience the great happiness of the birth of a child, knows with certainty that the greatest happiness on earth is not on the backs of horses. No, it lies soft, slumbering and warm in your own loving arm. Look forward / enjoy this happiness! I am with all my heart glad with you / you I / your

Humor and irony can be used well for congratulations. But pay attention to the balance – the joy should be in the foreground:

What you need now, I can not give you: Nerve strength, stamina, patience and a big budget. But I can assure you that you have already got the best luck on earth. In joyful "sympathy" yours

Well, how does he / she look like? Does he / she have Daddy's nose, Mama's eyeball, and is she smiling like Omama? It does not matter, because no matter what he / she looks like, she / he is a miracle of life and I am with all my heart glad with you / you your / your ….

Well, now the time has come and you have what you wanted: sleepless nights and stinking diapers, annoying screaming, lots of work and also high costs. But you will hardly notice, because you have become parents. My heartiest congratulations for your new life happiness ….

Easter and Christmas do not have to coincide for you / you to be / you are happy. For you / you also the … (Date of birth insert). This is the day on which you / your or your / your / your (insert name) a new life happiness came into the world. I am with all my heart glad with you / you your / your …

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