During the practical determination of the mushroom mushroom the class (lamellae mushroom) is first clarified, then typical characteristics (leaves white, later reddish etc.) and finally the significant distinguishing features to its doppelgängers worked out (eg Perlpilz rots, its doppelgänger gray amanita, Pantherpilz not, stem and leaf differences etc.). The characteristics recorded in a table clearly distinguish the three fungi from each other.
Fungal determination: Which questions have to be clarified in advance?
Question number 1: Is it tube or lamella mushrooms or leafless varieties (boviste, morels). This is important to distinguish, because only among the lamellae fungi deadly poisonous mushrooms are located. However there is exceptions (the deadly Lorchen).
Question number 2: What color are the slats or tubes? This is important, because only the deadly poisonous tuberous mushrooms pure white slats have, the deadly poisonous roughnecks cinnamon-brown and the deadly venomous bleachers (eg softwood puffball) tan,
Question number 3: Which taste and odor the mushrooms have – but the taste only "lick". This is enough to determine very sharp or bitter mushrooms that should never be collected. So z. B. the bile earring are distinguished from the real cesarean. Smells the mushroom z. B. to carbolic, it is the poisonous carbolic mushroom.
Question number 4: What other fungal characteristics are to be found, eg. B. beringt, grooved, mushroom cap. tuber,
Practical mushroom determination using the example of the pearl mushroom
1, The pearl mushroom Amanita rubescens is an exquisite edible mushroom, but it is very close to the group of toadstools and should be collected only with certain knowledge.
a) The typical feature of the pearl mushroom is the pale reddish color that appears when touched, injured, incised or the epidermis is peeled off. Even grubby, especially on the tuber, causes this reddish discoloration very strong. The redness can also become clear only during prolonged lying (storage), which can be misleading. Initially, the entire mushroom encloses a protective cover, which later tears and leaves remnants (pustules, flakes, warts) on the hat, which are easily wiped off. On the stem a cuff remains (partial shell). The mushroom has two major doppelgangers, with which it could be confused.
Second Double predecessor: Gray or Squat Amanita, (Gray Mushroom) Armanita exelsa, He has a characteristic typical of the perl mushroom Not: he does not turn red (when touched, storage). But he has one grooved cuff, He too is edible, but too easily confused with the following toadstool.
Third doppelganger Pantherpilz Amanita pantherina. He is a dangerous toadstool. Nevertheless, all three belong to the same family of amanita (such as fly agaric, panther mushroom, green, white, yellow tuber-leaf fungus, the scabbard and perl mushroom). The Pantherpilz does not have a typical characteristic of the Perlpilzes, which serves for the determination as significant characteristic: it has no grooved stalk,
And his stalk has one special rolled-up "childrens skirt" -sholl. You could already distinguish all three mushrooms from each other. They can only be proven exactly by the mycological determination. You put u.a. notes that only the poisonous panther fungus not bruised in iodine solution.
Fungal determination table (characteristics determined by magnifying glass):
|Mushroom (Amanita rubescens)||Gray amanita, Armanita exelsa||Pantherpilz Amanita pantherina|
|quality||Edible, not raw||Edible, not raw||not eatable|
|cap||gray, reddish, reddish brown,||greyish-brown, ash-gray,||liver brownish to yellow|
|less gray white||black-gray, up to 12 cm||hemispherical, later flat,|
|pustules||grayish-roan||first whitish, then gray||white, disappear easily|
|hat brim||ungerieft||smooth, ungrudged hat border||Edge gerieft|
|epidermis||Upper skin fibrous, cracked||Hat epidermis easily removable|
|leaves||white, then spotted reddish,||white, fuzzy on the vagina||white, dense|
|tight, soft||bulbous wide, soft||soft|
|free (not grown up)||attached to the stalk||attached to the stalk|
|stalk||slender or strong||stocky||Slim, last hollow inside|
|white, then reddish white,||soon gray, especially over cuff,||white, never reddening, delicately fuzzy|
|brownish red on the ground||5-10 cm high, 1-2 cm thick|
|mush ,||hanging down on the stem above the cuff gerieft||white above, below gray, screeched cuff||ungerieft, white, sticking out in middle of stalk, then beaten down, lying down|
|tuber||strong, conical, gradually merging into steep, up to 4cm thick, (also missing)||onion-shaped thickened, no vagina, gray warts||sharpened without hull cap, stalk grafted in (rolled-up "Kindersöckchen", belt zones|
|meat||white, delicate, on average dyeing, bläsrötlich-brown reddish||white, in the vertex under the epidermis Gray||never red, always white, also under the hat surface,|
|taste||palatable||mild, but soon scratching||sweetish – bland|
|odor||fragrant||dull, turnip to radish-like||radish, raw potatoes|
|spore||colorless, dust white, ellipsoid, blue in iodine solution (amyloid)||short egg-shaped, blue in iodine solution (amyloid)||colorless, ellipsoid, dust white, blue Not in iodine solution|
|Time :||from June to October||from the end of May – oct.||from June to October|
|Vorkomm ,||Foliage and coniferous forest||Foliage and coniferous forest||Foliage and coniferous forest|
|hazards||raw poisonous, mass mushroom, only for mushroom connoisseurs, confusion with.Pantherpilz||raw poisonous, mass mushroom, only for mushroom connoisseurs, confusion with.Pantherpilz||very toxic (Ibotensäure, Muszimol), acts on nervous system, causes numerous intoxications, short latency allows fast medicine. Help – therefore chance of healing is good|
The taxonomy of this fungal family (amanita) was as follows :
Class: basidia or stem fungi, Basidiopmycétes Forming their spores on the outside of club-shaped cells (the basidia). The basidia form a coherent layer, the hymenium
Subclass: cap mushrooms, Hymenomycétidae , The Hymenium covers outer surfaces of the fruit body, usually the "food" (leaves, tubes, spines) under the hat, or it covers the entire fruit body (coral fungi).
Alright: agarics, agaricales , Mushrooms with mostly juicy, fibrous flesh, hat lower side with leaves (= lamellae mixed with shorter leaves, but almost never forked.
Family: Amanita . Amanitaceae , Stem mostly ringed, leaves attached to stalk, spore dust white. Stalk base often bulbous and with membranous or warty Velumresten often in one Sheath – Volva. Individually on forest floor.
Genus Knollenblätterpilze & Wulstlinge Amanita (Types of family: blusher, Panther mushroom, Green, White, Yellow tuber leaf mushroom, Red & brown fly agaric, Gray amanita
Picture credits: shaiith / stock.adobe.com
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